Taken up in this blog:
- Retirement Readiness
- Paying Cash
- Parent Borrowing
- Social Security
In a Prudential Investments [http://www.prudential.com] study of American's preparations for retirement the facts revealed are
- 80% of us claim that retirement is our top financial priority;
- most surveyed adults gave themselves a grade of C or worse for their own preparation;
- 40% claimed they have no idea how to better prepare;
- 63% say investing is too confusing; and
- well over half plan to work beyond retirement age, at least to supplement retirement income.
- For your nest egg to provide you with the standard of living you want, and still last your natural lifetime, what rate of return must you earn in your current retirement plan?
- For your nest egg to provide you with the standard of living you want, and still last your natural lifetime how much more do you need to be saving on a monthly or annual basis?
- For your nest egg to provide you with the standard of living you want, and still last your natural lifetime how many more years will you have to work?
- If you make no changes to your current retirement plan, by how much will you have to reduce your lifestyle so that your nest egg will last your natural lifetime?
Sarah Watt House
Economist at Wells Fargo Securities spoke this morning (January 19, 2017) at the Business Today Newsmakers Breakfast, Cornelius, NC. My interpolations from her insights include:
- Be ever more careful and reluctant to borrow money to pay for college
- By exploiting relaxed repayment plans, more students and parents are loan-current, but . . .
- Employment outlook for college graduates is looking favorable.
Federal Student Aid and the Parent Loan for Undergraduate Students (PLUS Loan) are linked to the Treasury Bill rate. Inflation is rising, interest rates are rising, and each (more than likely) shall continue to rise. Although Federal loans are at a fixed interest rate, that rate is adjusted annually (linked to the T-Bill rate) for each new installment.
In other words, assuming you graduate in four years, you do so with four different loans, each carrying its own interest rate. As T-Bill rates rise, so will each, successive year's loan rate. If you enter college depending on borrowing as your primary means of paying, you may find yourself, financially, between-a-rock-and-a-hard-spot before you complete your degree.
I recommend that no parent use PLUS. If you do not see how you can send your child without that, please contact me. I may be able to help you discover alternatives (usually; but not always call me and let's talk).
Pros/Cons of Repayment Plans
According to Ms. House more students are utilizing the federal IBR (Income-Based Repayment) plans [https://studentaid.ed.gov/sa/repay-loans/understand/plans/income-driven]. The upside is that your debt-service is more manageable, relating to your income. The down side is that, often, repayment is stretched out over many, many years. That impacts debt-to-income credit worthiness when you are seeking a loan for a major consumer purchase (house and car, in particular).
There are also possibilities for student loan forgiveness based on tightly defined public service jobs. Although an option, remember that any amount forgiven is 1099'd in the year forgiven, and creates a tax-obligation for which you may be unprepared. I know a woman who successfully applied for forgiveness of over $100, 000 (one hundred thousand!) in student debt. She was elated until, the following January, the 1099 came in the mail. Her income for the previous year jumped from under $30,000 to more than $130,000 with the consequent income tax due by April 15.
Sarah is confident that employment outlook for college graduates is good, and shall remain so, at least in 2017, if not beyond. Good news for sure!
My caveat to that is, depending on your degree and planned career, not all job markets are equal. At the breakfast where Sarah spoke I was sitting with a gentleman whose 11th grader was thinking of either a degree in business or a law degree. My advice to him was to check the Bureau of Labor Statistics employment forecasts for specific professions, trades and industries. If the family heeds my advice the choice of majors will be resolved, I feel confident.
Applerouth Tutoring Services
To succeed on either writing test, students need to get the basics right first. They need to understand the formats for the new essay prompts, and know what the graders will be looking for in a student's response.
The SAT essay
The SAT essay writing exercise has been transformed from an opinion piece into an exercise in textual analysis and critical thinking; this is similar to exercises on certain AP exams. Students will be asked to read a short (600-700-word) persuasive passage and write an essay response that explains how the author develops and supports an argument.
It is irrelevant whether or not the student agrees with the author (the task of the old SAT essay); the student's task on the new test is to articulate how the author uses evidence, rhetorical devices and structure to support a claim. Students will be evaluated on three measures:
- Reading of the provided text
- Analysis of the text
- Writing skills
- Actively read the passage
- Scour for evidence that supports the author's main argument
- Use quotes that demonstrate they understand the author's argument
- Write a structured, organized essay that stays on topic
- Use smooth transitions between paragraphs
- Have an introduction, body and conclusion
- Use a variety of sentence structures
- Skillfully use vocabulary
- Write significantly longer essays
The ACT essay
On the ACT's revamped essay, students will get 40 minutes to analyze and respond to three distinct perspectives on a topic that concerns a broad, national issue. Students will be asked to:
- Analyze and evaluate the three given perspectives
- State and develop their own perspective
- Explain why they agree or disagree with the perspectives given
- Support their ideas with logical reasoning
- Support their idea with detailed, persuasive examples
- Development and support
- Language use
Graders want students to critically evaluate the logic of the perspectives, and also to identify errors, assumptions, and potential pitfalls. Students need to organize their essay, use words properly, pay attention to grammar, transition smoothly between paragraphs and vary the sentence structure.
Is the essay optional?
Both the SAT and ACT have now moved their essays to the end of their tests and made them optional. But some colleges might require a writing test. It's best for you to find out how a school uses the writing test in admissions before making the decision to not take it. We always encourage students to write the essay, even if they think their schools won't require it. We've seen too many students discover after taking the test without the writing section that their new stretch schools require the essay. The additional time spent to stay for the essay can save a student unnecessary stress and headaches down the road.
The new SAT and ACT essays raise the bar for critical thinking and analysis, allowing students a chance to show off their thinking and writing skills. Students aiming for a highly competitive essay score would benefit from timed practice with the new forms and corrective feedback. This will help identify strengths and weaknesses early, allowing students to make adjustments and go into the official test ready to hit their optimal score.
Jed Applerouth is the founder and CEO of Applerouth Tutoring Services, an education services company with offices in major metropolitan areas across the country. A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania and Georgia State University, Jed is a Nationally Certified Counselor with a PhD in Educational Psychology. Since 2001, Jed and his team of educators have helped thousands of students across the country optimize their scores on the SAT, ACT, and other admissions tests
Free Tuition? What might that look like? This is my thinking, and nothing more. I may be completely wrong, entirely right or (likely) a little right and a little wrong.
If beginning January 20, 2017 the next President declares free college tuition for everyone, this is what I think that would look like:
- Tuition will not appear as a "cost" line item at colleges continuing to participate in the Federal Student Aid program. Some private colleges will opt out.
- Costs may change at first, but they will creep up year-by-year until the "free tuition" is replaced by other fees and charges. Even with free tuition, room and board, mandatory fees and books will not be free.
- Admissions criteria will roil with confusion. If college is free because of federal tax supplements, how can a student be denied admission? To manage enrollment, free tuition will be offered for limited college choices based on students' home zip codes?
- If anyone can attend, and everyone attends tuition-free, there will be an impact on the marketplace value of a college degree. Degrees from private colleges that have opted out, and continue charging tuition, will be perceived as meritorious, and a two-tiered market value will emerge.
- If college is tuition-free, what will be the motivation to complete a degree in four years? Students may find it much easier to stay, and stay and stay in the crafted comfort of higher education.
- The federal government will seize some portion, or the entirety of current 529 Plan accounts, using the rationale that they are no longer needed. The argument will be made those funds are needed by the federal treasury to cover the costs of making college free.
- The IRS will impose a new federal surtax to cover U.S. Treasury disbursements. It may be a tax added to filers with AGI above a certain dollar amount. It may be a surtax on filers above a certain income level who also have students attending college during that tax year. It may be a tax on intercollegiate sporting events and revenue. It may be all of those, and more.
- Colleges participating in the free-tuition-program will be monitored as to salaries and capital expenditures. The federal government will not, you can be certain, pay a per-student tuition reimbursement college comptrollers think is fair (to wit: Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements to doctors). Tuition reimbursement will be according to a federal schedule, based on per capita census, with regional cost-of-living adjustments.
- Professors will retire early; will exit for higher-paying, private-sector employment, or will devote less time to education and more time to writing, speech-making, fee-based private education, and other means of sustaining and increasing their personal incomes.
Do you understand affordability? How much money, per year, can you lay out on college costs for your children? What factors must you consider? What can you do to bridge the gap?
How much money per year can you lay out on college costs for your children?
- Know the actual costs per year.
- Colleges publish "Cost of Attendance" estimates.
- Cost of Attendance includes tuition, mandatory fees, dormitory rent, on-campus meals, books and supplies, travel costs to and from home, miscellaneous out-of-pocket expenses
- Without borrowing any money, how much of that total can you pull from your monthly cash flow?
What factors must you consider?
- What is the anticipated college-costs inflation rate? The prices do tend to go up every couple of years.
- Never, never, never touch retirement funds to pay for college. That includes money already set aside, and monthly contributions from current income.
There are four questions about retirement to consider, all determined by your current retirement funding plans. Based on what you are doing now (err on the side of caution), for your money to last throughout your spouse's and your life expectancy:
- What Rate of Return must your accounts average?
- How many more years will retirement needs require you to work?
- How much more do you need to be saving monthly?
- By how much will you be forced to reduce your lifestyle in retirement?**
Sometimes families are transferring wealth away unknowingly and unnecessarily. We offer a no-obligation/no-charge audit to help you know.
Learn the details of the specifics behind broad and benign statements of ideals. How are those values practically applied on campus, in the students' lives? Remember, you're going to be living at this place for four years. Make sure it's a good fit for who you are as a person. The most expensive decision you can make is to transfer colleges. It adds time toward earning a degree; and time is money.
Will where you grew up impact your college experience? Will your grades be enhanced or will they suffer based on your hometown? If you have a choice, is it better to greet your favorite professor with "Hey" or "Mahnin" (that's Yankee for Good Morning)?
Dialect and Influences on the Academic Experience of College Students is a research paper out of North Carolina State University and published in The Journal of Higher Education. The report indicates that "students from the South or Appalachian regions face challenges of perception in university classes. " Their accent makes them "sound stupid." (Ouch! Right?)
That report underscores the importance of each student choosing thoughtfully and intentionally a college or university -- choosing on purpose. Facts, rather than imagination, will serve you better. Campus visits are worth the time and money.
High school students from Hough, North Meck, Lake Norman Charter, Pine Lake Prep, SouthLake Christian, Hopewell, Mooresville, South Iredell, Lake Norman High, Davidson Day, East Lincoln and a handful of others in the Charlotte, NC and Lake Norman regions are where most of our students attend. When asked which colleges or universities they are thinking about, with rare exception, a short list of two or three are mentioned. Digging a little, it becomes apparent that the students' preferences are based on what they imagine the college is like, rather than on facts they know for certain, and impressions they have gained from first-hand experience.
Research online and e-correspondence plus telephone calls to the Admissions Office of a college under consideration are invaluable in making good decisions as to where to apply and, ultimately, where to matriculate. Every college that gains a spot on your "seriously interested" list is worth a scheduled campus visit. Your list of questions, prepared in advanced, will significantly help you make the final decision.
We know that growing up in the South produces a lovely articulation. We also know that Southern students daily accomplish the highest levels of academic rigor. Let's be very patient with, and understanding towards those who don't know those facts -- even if they are PhD's.
- "On a full ride" -- remember high school? It is a professional sport in high school to "one-up" your peers; to put down your rival; to stretch the truth while talking about yourself. Yes, there are non-athletic, full rides. There are also people who win the Mega-Zillion-Jackpot lottery. I do not know any of those people, but I read about them in the news. In SWIC's five-year history we've had one student go on a merit-based 100% scholarship. She was valedictorian at a private high school. And, by the way, we know of another valedictorian from a different but equally prestigious high school who is attending a well-known university with $0.00 (zero) in financial aid awards.
- "Lots of scholarships" -- according to the U.S. Department of Education only about 1% (one percent) of all educational dollars comes from private scholarships. Many of those are linked to very specific qualifications. For example, in my Sunday, Sep 27, hometown newspaper there was an article about a local student who received a very generous scholarship which he qualified for as an employee of Autobell Car Wash, Inc. Many scholarships, if not most, are attached to very specific criteria. It is worthwhile to check, and apply for all you qualify for. Furthermore, many scholarships are "one offs," meaning you are awarded them once and that is all. It is important to let your financial aid office know that fact.
- "Pay for college" -- Money for college comes predominantly from parents' check books, from student and parent loans, from a university's own resources (endowment, and tuition discounts) and from work-study earnings. We advise parents to be prepared to pay one hundred percent of the cost of attendance, minus any student loans their child undertakes. Any outcome better than that is a plus! At SWIC we help families do better than that, nearly all of the time. However, there is more art than science in the achievement. Furthermore, if you will scroll down to previous blogs, you will understand that it is anything but automatic.
Let's wrap up the conversation we started last week (http://www.succeedwhereitcounts.com/blog/ "The Four Year Experience at only $100,000 Each"). Students commonly give us some push back on the task of college selection. The student often has one university in focus; maybe two at the most. There is economic value in expanding those horizons.
That is where mom and dad come into the action. The cost of a college education, at the end of the day, is a family decision. We [http://www.succeedwhereitcounts.com] can produce choices. Which choice is made, however, is entirely yours.
We have had families turn down a full scholarship (90% or better cost-of-attendance covered) and choose something more expensive, but closer to home. One family turned their collective noses up at a 50% scholarship (a potential savings of more than $120,000), because they had one particular college in mind and did not care what it cost. There are other, less dramatic examples, but the point is there is more to college selection than price.
Value is an intangible that not only will be considered by consumers, but should be considered. Value matters. Value is why SWIC does more than coach students in the intensive work of college choice. We also coach and advise parents on cash flow solutions. It is not uncommon for families to choose from the middle of the cost pack among the choices available. At SWIC we are actually very good at finding wealth transfers -- money people are currently transferring away unknowingly and unnecessarily -- and recouping those dollars to be applied to the out-of-pocket costs of a college education.
Regardless of what your final choice may be, our unwavering counsel is to choose a college or university with a degree program that will open a door to a personally satisfying and economically remunerative career for your student.
- Even at the better colleges, only about 6 out of 10 students graduate in 4 years. There are some notable exceptions, but no college I know of reports better than about 90% 4-year graduation rate.
- At $20,000 per year cost of attendance (N.C. residents, in-state rates), and a good chance of the "four year experience" taking 5 years (or longer), $100,000 is reality. [more info]
- Cost of Attendance = tuition, fees, room and board, books and miscellaneous expenses. Between our students and ourselves all of that will be borne as some combination of cash outlay and education loans. If a student gets some merit grant-in-aid (scholarships) to reduce the sticker price, good for them, and for us. But . . .
- Remember, in nearly every case scholarships (merit grants-in-aid) are based on four years, are dependent on maintaining an eligibility GPA, and may be lost if a student encounters any disciplinary issues. In addition, if the grant-in-aid is tied to a particular degree program, a change of majors may result in the loss of some or all of the scholarship.
|« Newer Posts||Older Posts »|
- Is Community College a good option after high school?
- The Future of Financial Aid and Scholarships, Part 2
- Home Schooling and College Admissions
- The Future of Financial Aid and Scholarships
- High School Seniors Win $14million in Scholarships -- true or false?
- 11th Grade, heading to college -- What should I be doing? Part 4
- 11th Grade, heading to college -- What should I be doing? Part 3
- 11th Grade, heading to college -- What should I be doing? Part 2
- 11th Grade, heading to college -- What should I be doing for admissions and financial aid?
- Four-Year Myth -- What You Can Do Now
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